ARLIS/NA Collection Development SIG Blog

For ARLIS/NA members interested in collection development issues.

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When it rains, it pours- thoughts on architectural publishing and academic library collection development / Barbara Opar, Architecture Librarian, Syracuse University Libraries

  • Ever notice that when it rains, it pours? I sometimes think that when doing collection development for architecture. It seems that when a title comes out on a new topic or up and coming architect/firm, more titles quickly follow creating a dilemma for the librarian with limited funds. For the most part, the addition of new materials on current architects is welcome. The Dean here recently asked me to locate as much information as I could on Snohetta AS. While the Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals identifies articles back to 1996, the first actual monograph was just published in August of 2015, making it a necessary addition to our collection even without the specific request. Big, Hot to Cold: An Odyssey of Architectural Adaptation was another 2015 publication, with a different focus than the few other publications on BIG. Bjarke Ingels has lectured here at Syracuse several times so again this was a welcome publication. As well, 2015 saw a limited number of important new works on Louis I. Kahn– one dealing his teaching at the University of Pennsylvania, another capturing interviews with Heinrich Klotz over a few years and another detailing Kahn’s use of concrete. Each of the books adds new insight into the legacy of this iconic architect, whose work is still studied here today. Though the 2015 book on Kahn’s use of concrete appeared after another book on the same topic had just been published in 2014.

So perhaps it is not that difficult for the architecture librarian to determine what is needed for

his/her collection in terms of the work of important architects, past and present. When faced with determining which if any new titles on new or key architects should be added to holdings, basic collection development protocols can be employed[1]. Questions to ask oneself include usage statistics on existing content on the architect/firm, range of work covered, graphic quality and content, and/or the addition of a critical essay or analysis. Is the firm’s work likely to be used for precedent research which might be asked of freshman students and result in heavy use over a short period of time? Will thesis students be drawn to the work and need to make longer term use of the title? Will faculty want to show the work in class? For instance Lewis.Tsurumaki. Lewis; Opportunisitic Architecture is frequently used by faculty to show graphic layout rather than actual projects by LTL.

Selecting new architectural history or theory books presents other challenges. Both of these types of books often appear on reading lists, if not reserve lists. Many become course textbooks. Here selection issues include the format. Should one consider electronic versions or print? E-books here have not gained much ground as certain vendors limit printing and many students and faculty like to go back and forth between chapters. The prestige of the author and/or editor is an important consideration. What is different about the book versus another one on post-modernism? Are the images used in the history titles different than those in other similar works? With respect to theory, is the book the writings of one theorist or compilation/excerpts of well- known texts? Is there a strong introductory chapter? Does it provide value added?

Selection of titles for the field of architectural technology involves some of the same decisions/analysis noted elsewhere. Here though the level/language of the text and currency are the major considerations. All architecture students are not able to deal with high-level engineering terminology. Is the information dated? Solar energy titles from the late 1970s remain relevant. Is there new information not contained in other works?

This brings me back to my original comment about the number and redundancy of architecture books sometimes coming out in the same year/time frame on a topic. The area most problematic from my point of view is a subfield of architectural technology—that of sustainable architecture. The term is broad – means a lot, means nothing- and every year hundreds of titles are published with this keyword. While certain titles focus on a specific building type such as residential design, others are not as easily defined. One must then use some of the standard collection development criteria to place limits. But since the librarian is often selecting new materials sight unseen, deciding on books for this arena can prove to be time consuming to say the least. Publisher descriptions and Amazon blurbs do help.

However, when it rains it does pour in this field. Someday this could all change. The number of titles coming out year after year may decrease. But for now I am grateful that for some other aspects of architecture, collection development it is more straightforward and needs determined more quickly and with less effort.

[1] Opar, Barbara. “Collection Development in Architecture: A View from the Field.” Library Collection Development for Professional Programs: Trends and Best Practices. By Sara Holder. Hershey, PA: IGI Global/ Information Science Reference, 2012. 390-422. Print. (Book Chapter)


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On the need for a Digital Library of Arts / Erik Wysocan.

“I see my own publishers in a silly panic of ignorance and greed, charging public libraries for an ebook six or seven times more than they charge customers […] I see a lot of us, the producers who write the books, and make the books, accepting this. Letting commodity profiteers sell us like deodorant, and tell us what to publish and what to write.

Books, you know, they’re not just commodities. The profit motive often is in conflict with the aims of art. We live in capitalism. Its power seems inescapable. So did the divine right of kings. Any human power can be resisted and changed by human beings. Resistance and change often begin in art, and very often in our art—the art of words.”
– From Ursula K. Le Guin’s acceptance speech at the National Book Awards, 2014

The large-scale digital book markets of Amazon, Apple and Barnes & Noble have created new distribution channels for many contemporary artists and independent arts publishers. New digital formats (apps, video files, PDFs, and ebooks) are creating opportunities for artists, and new modes of distribution. While epub, the open ebook standard, has existed since 2007, it has yet to find widespread adoption by independent publishers—largely due to a lack of accessible markets and some significant technical hurdles. Meanwhile, large commercial publishers have found new opportunities to reach wider audiences through ecommerce channels, and publication formats like Kindle, Nook (using Adobe DRM) and Apple’s iBook. Embedded within these digital protocols is a new legal regime with significant implications for libraries, and those concerned with the sovereignty of open and noncommercial research databases. In this text, I discuss some of the reasons why libraries should worry about this turn to closed digital formats, why it is a particular problem for arts libraries, and argue for the necessity of a dedicated, open database of digital arts publications. Finally, I will propose one strategy for addressing these issues: a new database project and distribution platform that is designed to serve the needs of both libraries and artists. I hope here to solicit responses from those most proximate to the issues at hand.

Let me first describe my own interest (and perhaps biases) in this field, and how I came to be concerned with current trajectories of independent publishing. In 2009 I founded Halmos, a small, experimental publishing imprint, as an extension of my own arts practice. Ebooks were of particular interest for their potential to reach wider audiences at minimal material cost. Both the Amazon Kindle and Apple iPhone had been released 2 years earlier, marking the creation of two new major ebook markets. Halmos’ first ebook was released on both platforms—seemingly an obvious choice for any small publisher looking to inexpensively maximize their audience. With these two channels, it is possible to reach over 90% of the ebook market ( The remaining distribution options and formats (eg Barnes & Noble’s Nook, Kobo, etc) offered little in return for the considerable time and effort required to make use of them. However, it was immediately obvious that neither Kindle nor iBook would allow for circulation amongst institutional and public libraries, nor was it clear how a small publisher might do so through any other ebook distributor. While library print collections are shaped by their own internal acquisition processes, digital content is typically mediated by volume aggregators such as Overdrive or EBSCO, who have little or no concern for niche art content. Moreover, the vast ebook catalogs of Amazon and Apple were designed to be closed ecosystems, entirely inaccessible to libraries or the content providers who serve them. In investigating the counterintuitive realization that ebooks are in fact less free to circulate than their print counterparts, it became clear that they are books in name only. With the shift to digital, the paradigm of the book has itself been restructured: as digital media, the book is no longer an autonomous object, rather it is a service made available through a chain of contracts. Following from this understanding, this text argues for reconceptualizing ebooks towards what I call ‘digital objects’.

A few recent statistics demonstrate the significant impact that ebooks will have on the wider publishing industry, including libraries that chiefly collect print materials. While initial ebook market growth has slowed for major publishers, digital publishing from independent imprints will continue to drive the overall market, with digital overtaking print sales in the near future—in one estimate by as early as 2018 ( Ebooks already account for 30% of all book sales, with Amazon Kindle at a 65% share of the market (and 19.5% of the total book market) ( Recent statistics detail an increasing sector of independently made books published through Amazon and similar platforms. Fully 60% of all ebook titles sold through Amazon fall into the category of ‘nontraditionally published’ – that is, many more sales than the titles sold by the top 1200 publishers ( A significant number of artist publications must fall into the category.

A short list of emerging art or cultural publishers experimenting with digital publication may help to make the problem more concrete. My point is to demonstrate the increasing importance of digital works, and the need for art libraries to find ways to access them. Badlands Unlimited (, a digitally focused imprint started by artist Paul Chan, publishes ebooks on Kindle and iBook including recent releases by Yvonne Rainer, Hans Ulrich Orbist and Calvin Tomkins, with a number of titles exclusively available in digital formats. Strelka Press (, a digital-first publisher with a focus on architecture and design theory (whose authors include Metahaven, Bruce Sterling, Keller Easterling, and many others), also provide their digital books in the closed formats of iBook, Kindle and Bookmate. Another example hints at problems for even those avoiding commercial sales channels entirely. Meson Press ( works with a number of important cultural theorist (Isabelle Stengers, Matteo Pasquinelli, Benjamin Bratton and others), and releases digital content as free, open access PDFs with a Creative Commons license. Despite this effort to use a permissive license, their ebooks have not been cataloged by libraries. In fact, the circulation problem for open access content mirrors that for books in closed formats, namely: that the licensing model of commercial ebooks dictates the mode of circulation so strongly that any format falling outside of that technical horizon requires too much retooling by distributors to be financially viable. Even with efforts to archive open content on sites like the Internet Archive, contemporary, independently published ebooks tend to be cataloged solely through private databases, and indexed only by commercial search engines; influencing how they are found and accessed in ways that we cannot fully know. The strong and weak commercial biases imposed by the current system are precisely the reasons that libraries are perhaps best equipped to work towards an alternative.

I do not claim that books are in a state of crisis, or that making and selling them should not be profitable. But, I want to draw attention to our growing lack of control on the matter. We need to reassess our engagement with digital media and decide if we want to allow commercial interests to determine all future modes of circulation. Six months ago, Halmos launched the beta version of a new initiative called Library Stack ( to begin to address the problem. It is a growing portal for art and culture ebooks, apps, video and sound media, providing general information, external links and online lending whenever possible. The goal is to build a comprehensive digital catalog of works by contemporary artists and cultural thinkers. Library Stack collects a range of dispersed, open projects, from free-standing artist applications to the digital output of established, medium-sized publishers. Thus, the closed databases of Amazon and iTunes are mixed with individually-produced works and various forms of open-access content. Library Stack’s growing catalog provides records to the OCLC Worldcat database system using the Open Archive Initiative standard protocol (OAI-PMH). In addition, Library Stack is built upon standardized structured data (i.e. to allow for more complete results with popular search engines, helping researchers find artists’ contributions in digital publications that might otherwise go overlooked.

Admittedly, addressing the metadata problem is only the first step; we have already begun working directly with publishers and authors to make primary content available to patrons through open digital lending. Though modest in scope, the process has so far been invaluable in learning the limits of public lending without a viable market-driven distribution system. Ultimately, we hope to provide both a new ebook database for research, and a distribution platform for libraries, but in order to do so we feel that we must first resolve the impasse between commercial and noncommercial interests through new modes of distribution.

Rethinking digital distribution demands significant attention. At its most fundamental, it means wresting digital content away from the software-license model and re-conceptualizing it as a digital object: a media file that may circulate online without dependencies on web services, proprietary DRM systems, or any central authority. Many existing media formats already meet these basic requirements, however, critical to any new scenario is the digital object’s ability to circulate through financial exchange systems as well: to be owned, resold and lent, as with physical objects, while also leveraging the infinite reproducibility of digital media. A key question for digital objects is how to create a market for them without inducing artificial scarcity. Rather than a central authority used in DRM models, we propose a cooperative model where each creator, publisher, distributor, lender, customer—and even would-be pirate—shares in the process of distribution as well as its profits. Without getting into the technical details, and at the risk of using a few buzzwords, Library Stack sees blockchain technology and “distributed apps” (sometimes collectively called Web 3.0) as providing mechanisms to circulate works in an open manner while disincentivizing piracy, and without having to resort to closed formats. (A whitepaper detailing the intricacies of this proposal is to come.) At this stage, we are chiefly interested in better understanding the needs of libraries and how they want to work with digital content. A truly library-forward digital distribution model may ultimately require the same level of library involvement as with their print collection management. Are libraries willing to make this investment for digital content if it allows for owning the works in a more meaningful way? Or is a service arrangement with an ebook collection provider an easier entry point? What are the critical features for libraries looking to expand their digital collections?

Current digital media has already been strongly shaped by commercial forces that are foreclosing on the future of digital library lending. We can build interim solutions (such as with the Library Stack), but the fundamental problems may not be fixable within existing media licensing regimes. Which is all the more reason why the future of digital library lending systems should be rethought now, as new technologies and new opportunities emerge that can redirect their trajectory.

Erik Wysocan
Erik Wysocan is an artist and founder of the independent arts imprint Halmos ( Last year Halmos launched Library Stack (, a digital card catalog of arts and culture media. He is also the creative director at Standard Analytics, a company working to reinvent scholarly publishing using open standards and artificial intelligence.

Works Cited

“What Market Share Do Amazon, Apple, B&N Kobo and Google Have Selling EBooks?” Good EReader EBook Audiobook and Digital Publishing News. N.p., 9 Oct. 2015. Web. 03 Jan. 2016. <;.

“Turning the Pixelated Page.” The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 09 Oct. 2014. Web. 03 Jan. 2016. <;.

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A Spring of Books in Santiago, Chile / Sócrates Silva

Earlier this Fall I traveled to Santiago, Chile and attended the Primavera del Libro (it is their Spring), a book fair dedicated to independent publishers which took place October 6-11, 2015 in Parque Bustamante. I was one of about 15 librarians attending the fair from the United States and Europe primarily comprising of SALALM (Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials) members ( ). There were 112 independent publishers present and while many of their holdings comprised of belles-lettres titles, readers of this blog might be interested in the catalog of publishers such as Ediciones ARQ ( ) which publishes an architectural journal as well as monographs. Sa Cabana Editorial ( ) is another architectural publisher which like many of the publishers at the fair had only a handful of titles in their catalog and limited distribution of their quality publications found in American Libraries. LOM Ediciones ( ), one of the most established publishers at the fair has a broader catalog including photography titles and graphic novels engaged in political themes. In addition there were zines, comics, and other art titles available at the fair.

Fair Grounds: Primavera del Libro in Parque Bustamante. Photo courtesy of Marisol Ramos, University of Connecticut

Primavera del Libro in Parque Bustamante. Photo courtesy of Marisol Ramos, University of Connecticut

SALALM colleagues take various approaches to purchasing titles while in Latin America. These are often dependent on institutional limitations and permissions. While some have purchase cards and cash and are able to purchase titles on the spot, others prepare wish lists and work with established vendors to acquire titles. Whatever approach we take the conversations we have with publishers and the time we spend dedicated to learning about this sprawling and complex publishing industry continuously in flux influences collection development throughout the year and beyond the days at any one fair.

In the days following the fair I visited two bookstores with extensive art and architecture titles. Metales Pesados ( ) in Barrio Bellas Artes is a wonderful bookstore and also a publisher of titles on aesthetics and philosophy. If you ask the bookstore manager nicely he will let you use the wi-fi to check holdings in your library catalog. The bookstore is just a few blocks away from the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes ( ) (which you can enter for free) and is a focal point in the neighborhood. The nearby Barrio Bellavista has a lot of contemporary mural and graffiti art and you can spend a very fruitful and enjoyable day with this short itinerary. There is also a small chain of independent bookstores, Contrapunto ( ) and each store is designed by a local architectural firm. You can find architectural books and magazines at the Librería Drugstore branch on Avenida Providencia (the store was designed by Juan Carlos Sabbagh), near the Los Leones metro stop. This bookstore also has the virtue of being close to Baco Restaurant ( ), which has a wonderful bistro menu accompanied by an excellent wine list at very reasonable prices. Santiago is a very manageable city with an efficient Metro system and if you find yourself there you will be surrounded by the majesty and beauty of the Andes.

Metales Pesados in Barrio Bellas Artes

Metales Pesados in Barrio Bellas Artes

Sócrates Silva, 2CUL Latin American & Iberian Studies Librarian (Columbia University/Cornell University)

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Thoughts about Ashgate and libraries / Kathleen Salomon

By now you are probably aware of the ongoing discussion about the fate of Ashgate Publishing, which was acquired by Informa (Taylor & Francis Publishing) last summer. The news has been actively discussed in various blogs and lists, including CAAH-L. Our colleague Doug Litts of the Art Institute of Chicago posted the news on ARLIS-L (Friday, November 20), where he quoted an Ashgate staff member’s statement that Ashgate is in fact being “absorbed and dissolved”. Last week Ashgate closed its North American office in Vermont and it seems that the fate of Ashgate’s UK offices remains uncertain or will similarly dissolve very soon, depending on which report one reads.

For many years I have looked forward to seeing the latest titles from Ashgate come through the Getty’s acquisitions department. Over the years Ashgate has increasingly become a respected venue for art historians, especially younger scholars publishing their early books on diverse and often groundbreaking topics organized–as the press matured–into a variety of interesting series, such as Women and Gender in the Early Modern world, Visual Culture in Early Modernity, or the more general Ashgate Studies in Architecture,   Checking in the Getty’s catalogue, I found that the Getty Research Institute library owns 168 Ashgate titles published in 2014 and 2015 alone; of these, 25 % are currently checked out by users—a usage figure that in my admittedly unscientific survey seems quite high for a research library holding well over 1 million volumes.

At the GRI, the Getty Library Research Grants committee has just met to make decisions about the next crop of grantees. The Ashgate story has very real consequences for many of these applicants, whose early-career and often esoteric research ranges from the ancient world to medieval architecture to 15th century Italy to technical art history to Latin American surrealism. While the GRI will publish some articles from grantees in its journal, it does not have the capacity to publish many more print monographs. As it is now, if the grantees have not already secured a publishing contract, it seems clear that they will no longer be able to look to Ashgate as a likely venue.

Late last week the president of the College Art Association issued this statement in CAA News regarding Ashgate:

CAA acknowledges the concern of many of its members regarding the acquisition of Ashgate by Informa, the parent company of Taylor & Francis. The Ashgate art and humanities publications series have been a critically important venue for art history and critical scholarship because of their high quality production. Ashgate’s art and humanities series have also increased in value as the opportunities for scholarly monograph publishing diminishes. CAA has conveyed the concerns to Taylor & Francis that the high quality of the editorial process at Ashgate be maintained by Taylor & Francis and the art and humanities series continue to publish as fully as in the past. (CAA News, December 1, 2015,

Then Steve Kolowich’s article of December 2nd from The Chronicle of Higher Education, “In Fight over Academic Publishing House, Fear of Corporate Values,” ( engendered some interesting comments from scholars as well as some librarians. As librarians we are all too familiar with the scenario where a large company buys up a smaller one and then proceeds to make changes which affect both quality and access. In the case of Ashgate and Taylor & Francis, the concerns most often cited are that there is not a real understanding of the arts and humanities by the acquiring party, and that the prices will increase. It seems that the price for most Ashgate books will increase to $149 in 2016. One commentator asks if libraries will be willing/able to “recommend the purchase of Ashgate books at this new higher price…” Others responding to Kolowich’s piece note the pressure libraries are under to keep purchasing no matter the price or the publisher, if that is where their constituents continue to publish. Still another thread discusses the importance of increasing open access publishing, yet acknowledges the enormous challenge this possibility poses in the current academic tenure environment.

The Ashgate saga will continue. Hopefully the petition and statements by professional organizations will have a positive outcome. A statement from ARLIS registering the concerns of art librarians and urging Ashgate to reconsider its plans might be appropriate.

Moreover the Ashgate story is a compelling reminder of the need for advocacy and action by art librarians in their local sphere, particularly in the move toward more open access publishing. It may not be in the interest of scholarship for our libraries to stop purchasing or licensing resources from the major publishers such as Taylor & Francis in order to make a point, even though this choice will be a reality some must face due to the increasing costs of publications in our field. However, art librarians can actively make the decision to validate open access publishing by identifying relevant open access books and journals and including good records for them in their catalogs and discovery systems, and finally by referring researchers to them, as they would any other publication. We can furthermore initiate and encourage dialogue with our various user groups about the importance of contributing to open access platforms in order to ensure their development into viable, trusted, and accepted research destinations. While it may seem a bit of a stretch to suggest that open access publishing of a first art historical monograph could be a viable option for young scholars who in the past might have worked with Ashgate, it is indeed a moment to consider again how our libraries might contribute to a wider acceptance of this alternative.     ——-K. Salomon (

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NEW BOOK OFFERED FOR FREE TO LIBRARIES THAT COLLECT ARCHITECTURAL TITLES: , The Art of Inequality: Architecture, Housing, and Real Estate — A Provisional Report / Jacob Moore.

Columbia University’s Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture was founded in 1982. Its mission is to advance the interdisciplinary study of American architecture, urbanism, and landscape. A separately endowed entity within the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, it sponsors research projects, workshops, public programs, publications, and awards.

The following publication, The Art of Inequality: Architecture, Housing, and Real Estate — A Provisional Report (details below) is now available for shipment to architectural libraries across the country. You may request copies via Jacob Moore at If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to ask.

2015 Jacob Moore edited
The Art of Inequality: Architecture, Housing, and Real Estate

A Provisional Report
240 pages, Illustrated, ISBN: 978-1-941332-22-1
Reinhold Martin, Jacob Moore, and Susanne Schindler, eds.
With contributions by Manuel Shvartzberg Carrió, Erik Carver, Cezar Nicolescu, Pollyanna Rhee, and Sonya Ursell

From The Art of Inequality: Architecture, Housing, and Real Estate — A Provisional Report:

In 2013, in the United States, the median-income white household’s net worth was thirteen times that of the median-income black household. In 2014, the world’s eighty-five richest individuals held as much wealth as the world’s poorest 3.5 billion. In 2015, 88,000 households applied for the chance to live in fifty-five below market-rate apartments, accessible through a “poor door” on New York City’s Upper West Side.

What is inequality? Typically, inequality is defined by a combination of economic measures referring to income and wealth. Entire populations, in the language of statistics, are measured and managed according to their place on the inequality spectrum: patronage for the 1%, morality for the ambiguous “middle class,” and austerity for the rest. This economic inequality is, however, inseparable from social disparities of other kinds—particularly in the provision of housing. More than just a building type or a market sector, housing is a primary architectural act—where architecture is understood as that which makes real estate real. It begins when a line is drawn that separates inside from outside, and ultimately, one house from another. The relation that results under the rule of real estate development is—by its very structure—unequal.

This is the art of inequality. Its geographies are local and global. Its histories are distant and present. Its design is ongoing. Its future is anything but certain.


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Our Offsite Storage Conundrum /Anne Champagne

Anne Champaigne oakgroveThree years ago, having outgrown its stacks space, the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago made arrangements with Northwestern University Library to house a portion of its collection at NU’s book storage facility in Waukegan, Illinois, 40 miles north of Chicago. The terms of the arrangement are fairly straightforward: NU houses our material in a state-of-the-art facility and they load our MARC records in their catalog so that their students and faculty may use our materials. When we want one of our books, they send it by overnight courier and our patron has it in hand the next day. At present, approximately 40,000 books have been sent off-site; in order to obtain adequate elbow room in the stacks, we would like that number to be closer to 100,000.

As one would expect, the most difficult aspect of this process has not been working out the logistics or fielding patron concerns, but deciding which materials to send off-site. Our goal has been to inconvenience our researchers as little as possible and to minimize the staff time necessary to request and return off-site materials; in other words, we have tried to determine which items are in low demand, and likely to stay that way. Our selection criteria have hinged on imprint date and circulation data.

Three years and 40,000 books later, we have picked all the low-hanging fruit and sent it to Waukegan. We are now at a stage where we must review our selection criteria. In addition to simply broadening the categories of eligible materials to send off-site, we might also consider developing a deeper reciprocity agreement with NU that would allow us to withdraw certain items from our collection. Another possibility is to initiate a digitization project to provide virtual access instead of physical access to parts of the collection. The challenge is to think creatively about how best to preserve the strengths of the collection, serve our patrons, minimize the impact on library staff, and save money. What selections criteria have other institutions used to make these painful decisions?

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New publication: Rembrandt’s Changing Impressions / Chris Sala

Rembrandt’s Changing Impressions

Catalog for an exhibition held at the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Galley, New York from September 9, 2015 to December 12, 2015. Curated by Robert Fucci.

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–1669) manipulated his copperplates in unprecedented ways to achieve printed images that were often in flux. That many of the different results were circulated as finished works in their own right marked a new moment in the appreciation of printmaking and the collecting of prints in the seventeenth century.

Rembrandt was the first artist to treat the print medium as a means of crafting visibly changing images. He was also the first printmaker to fully explore the use of newly available Asian papers for their aesthetic and technical effects. Many of these variations were the outcome of Rembrandt’s intense and restless search for results that satisfied his artistic sense. Others – especially among the portraits – were probably produced at the instigation of some of his print connoisseur patrons,  a prospect that this exhibition explores further.

Rembrandt’s Changing Impressions highlights 18 of the artist’s most notably intriguing or dramatically altered prints. It gathers together 52 impressions from 14 different U.S. collections to best show the images in their circulated iterations. All of the works exhibited here were produced during Rembrandt’s lifetime, and almost all were likely printed by the artist himself or under his direct supervision. (from exhibit webpage)

Book available at



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